The Holy Prophet (PBUH) finalized the Ends of Islam in this unique document. Revolutionary in nature, these ends were given to humanity over fourteen hundred years back, well before Rousseau and Voltaire came up with their equality, liberty, and fraternity in the eighteenth century. These can be enumerated as Total Human Equality, Simplicity, Forgiveness/Freedom from Human Bondage, Inviolability of blood property and honour, Women Rights, Inheritance, Morality/Legitimacy, Loyalty/Ancestry, Integrity, Responsibility, Muslim Brotherhood, Right of slaves/servants, Honesty Loyalty, Deen and Affirmation of piety/belief. Does that imply that five pillars of Islam must finally result into these ends?
“All praise due to Allah, so we praise Him, and seek His pardon and we turn to Him. We seek refuge with Allah from the evils of ourselves and from the evil consequences of our deeds. Whom Allah guide the aright, there is none to lead him astray; and there is none to guide him aright whom Allah leads astray. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, the One having no partner with Him. His is the Sovereignty and to Him is due all praise. He grants life and causes death and is Powerful over everything. There is no God but Allah, the One; He fulfilled His promise and helped His servant and He alone routed the confederates.
O People, listen to my words for I do not know whether we shall meet again and perform Hajj after this year.”
1.Human Equality. “O People! Allah says: “O People we created you from one male and one female and made you into tribes and nations, so that you are known to one another. Verily in the sight of Allah, the most honoured amongst you is the one who is the most God-fearing.” There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab and for a non-Arab over an Arab, nor for the white over the black nor for the black over the white except in piety. All mankind is the progeny of Adam and Adam was fashioned out of clay.
2.Simplicity. Behold! Every claim of privilege whether that of blood or property, is under my feet except that of the custody of Allah’s House (Ka’aba) and supplying of waters to the pilgrimage.
3.Piety. O People of Quraish! Do not appear with the burden of this world around your necks, whereas other people may appear (before the Lord) with the rewards of the Hereafter. In that case I shall avail you naught against Allah.
4.Forgiveness/Freedom from Human Bondage Behold! All practices of the days of ignorance are now under my feet. The blood revenges of the days of ignorance are remitted. And the first claim on blood I abolish is that of Ibne Rabi’ah bin Al-Harith who was nursed (brought up) in Bani Sa’d and who was killed by the Hudhayls. All interest and usurious dues accruing from the age of ignorance stand wiped out. And the first amount of interest that I remit is that which Abbas bin Abdul Mutallib had to receive. Verily, it is being remitted entirely.
5.Inviolability of Blood, Property and Honour. O People! Verily your blood, your property and honour are sacredand inviolable until you appear before your Lord, as the sacred inviolability of this day of yours, this month of yours, and this very town (of yours). Verily, you will soon meet your Lord and you will be held accountable for your deeds.
6.Women Rights. O People! Verily, you have got certain right over your women – and your women have certain rights over you. It is your right upon them that they must not allow anybody save you to come to your bed and admit none to enter your homes whom you do not like but with your permission. And it is for them not to commit acts of impropriety, which if they do, you are authorised by Allah to separate them from your beds and chastise them, but not severely, and if they refrain, then cloth and feed them properly. Behold! It is not permissible for a woman to give anything from wealth of her husband to anyone but with his consent.
7.Women Rights. Treat the women kindly, since they are your helpers and are not in a position to manage their affairs themselves. Fear Allah concerning them, for verily you have taken them on the security of Allah and have made their persons lawful unto you by words of Allah.
8.Inheritance. O People! Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, has ordained to everyone his due share (of inheritance). Hence there is no need (of special) testament for their (departing from the rules laid down by the Shariah).
9.Morality/Legitimacy. The child belongs to the marriage-bed and the violator of wedlock shall be stoned. And reckoning of their deeds rests with Allah.
10. Loyalty/Ancestry. He, who attributes his ancestry to other than his father or claims his client-ship to other than his master, the curse of Allah is upon him.
11. Integrity. All debts must be repaid, all borrowed property must be returned, gifts should be reciprocated and a surety must make good the loss to the assured.
12. Responsibility. Beware! No one committing a crime is responsible for it but himself. Neither the child is responsible for the crime of his father, nor is the father responsible for the crime of his child.
13. Integrity. Nothing of his brother is lawful for a Muslim except what he himself gives willingly. So do not wrong yourselves.
14. Brotherhood. O People! Every Muslim is the brother of other Muslim, and all the Muslims from one brotherhood.
15. Rights of slaves/servants. And your slaves! See that you feed them with such food as you eat yourselves, and cloth them with the clothes as you yourselves wear.
16. Integrity. Beware that you go not astray after me and strike one another’s necks. He who (amongst you) has any trust with him, he must return it to its owner.
17. Deen. O People! There is no Prophet to come after me and there would be no Ummah to form after you. Verily I have left amongst you that which would never lead you astray, the Book of Allah, and the Sunnah of His Messenger, which, if you hold fast, you shall never be misled. And beware of transgressing the limits set in the matters of Deen, for it is transgression of (the proper bounds of) Deen, that brought destruction to many people before you
18. Beware of Evil. Verily the Satan is disappointed at ever being worshipped in this land of yours, but if obedience in anything( short of worship is expected that is): he will be pleased in matters you may be disposed to think insignificant, so beware of him in the matters of your Deen.
19. Affirmation of piety/belief. Behold! worship your Lord; offer prayers five times a day; observe fast in the month of Ramazan; Pay readily the Zakat (poor- due) on your property; and perform pilgrimage to the House of God and obey your rulers and you will be admitted to the Paradise of your Lord.”
We request the readers to debate, comment and derive the guidelines for the values of:
National Purpose (Equality of all people, institutions, provinces, Liberty or Freedom and Fraternity or Brotherhood); Personal values (Integrity, Service before Self and Excellence in Whatever We Do); National Values (Pluralism, Federalism, Constitutionalism, Internationalism; Equal Rights of Minorities; Joint Electorates etc)? Additionally does it give us the basis for our Common National Identity and the basis for evolving our National Interests?
Note: The emphasis and topics of various tenets are added by the scribe. We request the readers to publish their comments/critique in all newspapers and magazines for a wider debate. Let us make Pakistan more secure!
The writer has been CI at NDC and a visiting faculty for “Statecraft and National Security” at the National Security Workshop and the Administrative Staff College. E-mail: mak366 @ hotmail.com.